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Schema functionare GPON


GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) is currently leading FTTH standard in Europe and in the World.  At first stage developed by FSAN (Full Service Access Network), now recommendation are published as ITU-T G.984.x standard.


Gigabit Passive Optical (GPON)  technology  has the active network elements OLT (Optical  Line Termination)  at the central office and ONU/ONT  (Optical Network Unit  / Termination) at the subscriber site. Typical GPON configuration consists of a single PON port at the OLT and a number of ONUs connected to it over a single fiber feeder.


Generally, a Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is used in the  downstream  data transmission. OLT broadcasts data to every ONUs using TDM approach. Every ONU receives each downstream frame and pinks up only that data addressed to it by the OLT. Optionally, FEC coding and AES encryption are applied to the user data.


To deliver data to OLT in upstream direction, the OLT implements a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)  approach. ONU (ONT) receives data from the user ports and combines them into bursts. Each ONU (ONT) transmits its data in a strict accordance with the Bandwidth Map generated by OLT for the synchronization. Using DBA mechanism OLT can rearrange upstream bandwidth to provide more resources to those ONU tightly loaded with traffic.


The ONU  provides network termination for a Passive Optical Network (PON)  in the home or business. The ONU connects via a  high speed interface to the PON network and provides subscriber access to data (Ethernet), voice (POTS) and video services.  GPON gives edge networks an unparalleled bandwidth advantage in their ability to offer truly high speed triple play service (i.e. voice, video and data) especially when compared with existing cable or DSL services.


Key feature of GPON:

  • 2488Mbps in downstream direction (from OLT to ONT)
  • 1244Mbps in upstream direction (from ONT to OLT)
  • maximum distance 60km
  • maximum optical budget 32dBm
  • maximum split ration 1:128
  • allow to send CATV/DVB-C/T via Video overlay on 1550nm wavelength
  • interoperability between manufactures of OLT and ONT via OMCI
  • upgrade to higher standard (like XG-PON) is allowed without interruption of existing service
  • Uses AES encryption for security
  • Support FEC (Forward Error Correction) 
  • Support Provisioning and Pre-Provisioning

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